Tuesday, August 20, 2019

Native Language in Foreign Language Learning

Native Language in Foreign Language Learning 1.1 Introduction The debate over whether English language classrooms should include or exclude students native language has been a controversial issue for a long time (Brown, 2000). Although the use of mother tongue was banned by the supporters of the Direct Method at the end of the nineteenth century, the positive role of the mother tongue has recurrently been acknowledged as a rich resource which, if used judiciously, can assist second language learning and teaching (Cook, 2001). Therefore, this research study tries to open up a new horizon for English instructors to find a thoughtful way to use learners mother tongue in second language teaching. The technique in which L1 was used in this study was translation from L1 to L2, a technique which was rarely used by EFL teachers. Atkinson (1987) was one of the first and chief advocates of mother tongue use in the communicative classroom. He points out the methodological gap in the literature concerning the use of the mother tongue and argues a case in favour of its restricted and principled use, mainly in accuracy-oriented tasks. In his article, Atkinson (1987) clearly stated that translation to the target language which emphasizes a recently taught language item is a means to reinforce structural, conceptual and sociolinguistic differences between the native and target languages. In his view, even though this activity is not communicative, it aims at improving accuracy of the newly learned structures. Similarly, this research aimed at investigating the effect of translation from L1 to L2 on the accurate use of the structures. The arguments in supports of using the learners mother tongue in L2 instruction clearly reveal that not only doesnt the use of first language have a negative impact on L2 learning, but it can be factor to help students improve the way they learn a second language. Although the English Only paradigm continues to be dominant in communicative language teaching , research into teacher practice reveals that the L1 is used as a learning resource in many ESL classes (Auerbach, 1993). Auerbach added that when the native language was used, practitioners, researchers, and learners consistently report positive results. Furthermore, he identifies the following uses of mother tongue in the classroom: classroom management, language analysis and presenting rules that govern grammar, discussing cross-cultural issues, giving instructions or prompts, explaining errors, and checking comprehension. Although the provision of maximum L2 exposure to the learners seems essential, L1 can be used alongside L2 as a complement. In this regard, Turnbull (2001) stated that maximizing the target language use does not and should not mean that it is harmful for the teacher to use the L1. â€Å"a principle that promotes maximal teacher use of the target language acknowledges that the L1 and target language can exist simultaneously (p. 153). Similarly, Stern (1992) stated that the use of L1 and target language should be seen as complementary, depending on the characteristics and stages of the language learning process (p. 285). On the other hand, overuse of L1 will naturally reduce the amount of exposure to L2. Therefore, attempt should be made to keep a balance between L1 and L2 use. In this regard, Turnbull (2001) acknowledges that although it is efficient to make a quick switch to the L1 to ensure, for instance, whether students understand a difficult grammar concept or an unknown word, it is crucial for teachers to use the target language as much as possible in contexts in which students spend only short periods of time in class, and when they have little contact with the target language outside the classroom. 1.2 Background to the problem The Integrated Secondary School Curriculum or Kurikulum Bersepadu Sekolah Menengah (KBSM) was planned in accordance with the National Education Philosophy. The main goal of KBSM was based on the integrated self-development with orientation towards society or nation (Mak Soon Sang, 2003). Four language skills namely listening, speaking, reading and writing are incorporated in the English syllabus proficiency in order to meet their needs to use English in everyday life, for knowledge acquisition, and for future workplace needs (Kementerian Pendidikan Malaysia, 2000). My personal experience as a learner has shown me that moderate and judicious use of the mother tongue can aid and facilitate the learning and teaching of the target language, a view shared by many colleagues of mine. However the value of using the mother tongue is a neglected topic in the TESL methodology literature. This omission, together with the widely advocated principle that the native language should not be used in the second language classroom, makes most teachers, experienced or not, feels uneasy about using L1 or permitting its use in the classroom, even when there is a need to do so. How do students and teachers look at this issue? Schweers (1999) conducted a study with EFL students and their teachers in a Spanish context to investigate their attitudes toward using L1 and in the L2 classroom. His result indicates that the majority of students and teachers agreed that Spanish should be used in the EFL classroom (Schweers 1999). Inspired by his research and driven by my own interest, the researcher decided to carry out a similar study on the use of the native language (Malay) in the Malaysian context. However, differences exist between Schweers study and mine. 1.3. Statement of the problem Many rural school students have difficulty in understanding English, and they have often found it difficult to read English books on their own (Ratnawati and Ismail, 2003). Students lack of proficiency in English deprives them of the opportunities open to those who are able to use the language well. Recently, the teaching and learning of English has been discussed widely in Malaysia. This is because the low level of English proficiency among students hinders them from acquiring knowledge globally. Students L1 are being use in the ESL classroom especially in the rural area to help them understand English better and find out if it is an effective teaching and learning tool. Because of the students difficulty in understanding the language, teachers need to assist them thoroughly in the learning process. With the using of the L1, this will gain their interest to stay focus in the class and not being de-motivated in learning the target language. The prohibition of the native language would maximize the effectiveness of learning the target language will be a question that we need to find out. 1.4. Purposes of the study The purpose of the study is to determine whether the L1 (Malay language) are use frequently in the rural ESL classroom. The important of this study is to find out whether L1 works as an effective teaching and learning instrument. 1.5. Research questions Research questions for this study are; How frequent the Malay language was used in the Malaysian English classroom and for what purposes? Can prohibition of L1 (Malay language) maximize the interest of using English in the classroom? What are the perception of the students and the teachers towards using Malay in the English classroom? 1.6. Theoretical For this study, the researcher referred to the theory of SLA that interrelated set of hypothesis or claims about how people become proficient in a second language. In a summary of research findings on SLA, Lightbown (1985: 176-180) made the following claims: Adults and adolescents can â€Å"acquire† a second language. The learner creates a systematic inter-language that is often characterized by the same language as the first language, as well as others that appear to be based on the learners own native language. There are predictable sequences in acquisition so that certain structures have to be acquired before others can be integrated. Practice does not make perfect. Knowing language rule does not mean one will be able to use it in communicative interaction. Isolated explicit error correction is usually effective in changing language behavior. For most adult learners, acquisition stop-â€Å"fossilizes†-before the learner has achieved native-like mastery of the target language. One cannot achieve native-like or non native-like command of a second language in one hour a day. The learners task is enormous because language is enormously complex. A learners ability to understand language in a meaningful context exceeds his or her ability to comprehend de-contextualized language and to produce language of comparable complexity and accuracy. The hypothesis will be the first tool for the measurement of how the students in the rural ESL classroom comprehend with target language. Learning is a long life process so the students need a proper guide to lead them in gaining the language proficiency. There are some modifications that need to be made in using these hypotheses so it will be suit to the learners need in the rural area. There are some mistakes that made by the learners that due to interference from their first language and the learners errors should be corrected as soon as they are made in order to prevent the formation of bad habits. The acquisition-learning hypothesis Stephen Krashen (1977) claimed that adult second language learners have two means for internalizing the target language. The first is â€Å"acquisition†, a subconscious and intuitive process of constructing the system of a language. The second means is a conscious â€Å"learning† process in which learners attend to form, figure out rules, and are generally aware of their own process. According to Krashen, â€Å"fluency in second language performance is due to what we have acquired, not what we have learned† (1981a:99). Adults should, therefore, do as much acquiring as possible in order to achieve communicative fluency; otherwise, they will get bogged of language and to watching their own progress. For Krashen (1982), our conscious learning processes and our subconscious process mutually exclusive: learning cannot become acquisition. This claim of no interface between acquisition and learning is used to strengthen the argument for recommending large doses of acqui sition activity in the classroom, with only a very minor role assigned to learning. The input hypothesis Krashens claims that an important â€Å"condition for language acquisition to occur is that the acquirer understand (via hearing or reading input language that contains structure a bit beyond his or her current level of competence†¦..if an acquirer is at stage or level i , the input he or she understands should contain i +1† (Krashen1981:100). In other words, the language that learners are exposed to should be just far enough beyond their current competence that they can understand most of it but still challenged to make progress. The corollary to this is that input should neither be so far beyond their reach that they are overwhelmed (this might be, say, i + 2) nor so close to their current stage that they are not challenged at all (i + 0). Important parts of the Input Hypothesis are recommendation that speaking not be though directly or very early in the language classroom. Speech will be emerging once the acquirer has built up enough comprehensible input ( i + 1). Success in a foreign language can be attributed to input alone. Such a theory ascribes little credit to learners and their own active engagement in the process. Moreover, it is important to distinguish between input and intake. Intake is what you take with you over a period of time and can later remember. Krashen (1983) did suggest that input gets converted to knowledge through a learners current internalized rule system and the new input. The application of these theories will help the study in measuring how effective the use of L1 in the ESL classroom based on the prior knowledge of the participants and in what way the theories will help the researches defines the result of the studies. Motivation Theory Various definitions of motivation have been proposed over decades of research and three different perspectives emerge: From a behaviourist perspective, motivation was seen in matter of fact terms. It is quite simply the anticipation or reward. Driven to acquire positive reinforcement, and driven by previous reinforcement, and driven by previous experiences of reward for behaviour, we act accordingly to achieve further reinforcement. In this view, our acts are likely to be at the mercy of external forces. In cognitive terms, motivation places much more emphasis on the individuals decisions. Ausubel (1968:368-379), for example, identified six needs undergirding the construct of motivation: a. The need for exploration, for seeing the other side of the mountain, for probing the unknown; b. The need for manipulation, for operating- to use Skinners term- on the environment and causing change; c. The need for activity, for movement and exercise, both physical and mental; d. The need for stimulation, the need to be stimulated by the environment, by the other people, or by ideas, thoughts, and feelings; e. The need for knowledge, the need to process and internalize the result of exploration, manipulation, activity, and stimulation, to resolve contradictions, to quest for solutions to problems and for self consistent systems of knowledge; f. Finally, the need for ego enhancement, for the self to be known and to be accepted and approved by others. 3) A constructivist view of motivation places even further emphasis on social context as well as individual person choices (Williams Burden 1997:120). Each person is motivated differently, and will therefore act on his or her environment in ways that are unique. Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation Edward Deci (1975:23) defined intrinsic motivation: â€Å"Intrinsically motivated activities are ones for which there is no apparent reward except the activity itself. People seem to engage in the activities for their own sake and not because they lead to an extrinsic reward†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.intrinsically motivated behaviours are aimed at bringing about certain internally rewarding consequences, namely, feelings of competence and self determination†. Extrinsically motivated behaviours, on the other hand, are carried out in anticipation of a reward from outside and beyond the self. Behaviours initiated solely to avoid punishment are also extrinsically motivated, even though numerous intrinsic benefits can ultimately accrue to those who instead, view punishment avoidance as a challenge that can build their sense of competence and self determination. The intrinsic and extrinsic continuum in motivation is applicable to foreign language classrooms and around the world. Regardless of the cultural beliefs and attitudes of learners and teachers, intrinsic and extrinsic factors can be easily identified (Dornyei and Csizer 1998). During the classroom observations, the researcher will identify whether the teacher use this kind of method. If the students communicate with their L1, should the teacher give a punishment or give them the motivation to communicate with L1 as long it will help the students to understand the whole lesson. 1.7. Significance of the study It is hope that the study will: Help all the teachers in selecting the best method in teaching the ESL classroom especially in the rural area. Determine the appropriateness of using the Malay in the ESL classroom. Enable the teacher to realize the important of using the L1 in the ESL classroom at the rural area. Help the students to gain their interest in learning the target language by giving them the opportunity to use their L1 while learning ESL. 1.8. Limitation of the study This study was undertaken with the following limitations; The small sample clearly does not represent the whole population of students in SMK in Felda Gedangsa. The sample taken is 40 students from one class in Felda Gedangsa. The reliability and validity of the survey instruments may be questioned. The questionnaire is not based on any existing survey instrument, which had been tested and/ or certified in terms of reliability and validity. The questionnaire is developed specifically for this study. The time constrain will limit the quality of the study. SMK Felda Gedangsa is situated in Ulu Selangor district and about 30KM from UPSI. It will take a long time in doing this study. The students level of proficiency is at the lower level and they will need help in understanding the questionnaires. 1.9. Summary Understanding of English is crucial for every student in the ESL classroom. Without a proper guide from the teacher, they will lose their motivation in learning. Teacher need to be ready with a proper methods and teaching skills and should not ignore the use of L1 in the classroom. With the lacking of vocabulary and understanding towards certain aspects in the learning process, surely the use of L1 in the classroom should be considered to guide the students. REVIEW OF LITERATURE 2.1. Introduction This paper provides a review of the literature on students L1 are being used in the ESL classroom especially in the rural area and find out if it is an effective teaching and learning tool. There are several studies which are significance to the focus of this study. The summaries of previous work related to the hypothesis of the study are listed below. Long (1985, 1996), adapted the input Hypothesis to include interaction. His modified Input Hypothesis (1996) focuses on negotiation of meaning that occurs when communication breaks down. It proposes that oral input that is simplified through interactional modification is more successful than non-interactionally modified input in promoting learner comprehension, which in turn facilitates language acquisition. This hypothesis claims that the modified output produced by learners who are interacting in order to negotiate meaning can also aid acquisition. In this view, which gives importance to input that has been simplified through interaction, there is a possible role for the use of the learners L1 in the interactive input. Modified must give the learner information related to the linguistic form that were problematic and the use of the L1 is a potential source of this critical information (Gillis, 2007). 2.2. Close studies on the Using of L1 in the ESL Classroom Research on the usage of the L1 in the ESL classroom is a vital has demonstrated that L1 are not only effective but necessary for adult ESL students with limited L1 literacy or schooling and that use of students linguistic resources can be beneficial at all levels of ESL (Auerbach 1993). Auerbach (1993), performed a research on the topic of â€Å"Do you believe that ESL students should be allowed to use their L1 in the ESL classroom†? Only 20% of the respondents gave an unqualified yes to the question; 30% gave an unqualified no, (with comments such as, Its a school policy and No but its hard); the remaining 50% said sometimes (with comments such as Usually not, but if I have tried several times to explain something in English and a student still doesnt understand, then I allow another student who speaks the same language to explain in that language; Theyre going to do it anyway; As a last resort). The essence of these comments is captured by the following response In general ESL students should be encouraged to use English as much as possible, but in reality this doesnt always work. Thus, despite the fact that 80% of the teachers allowed the use of the L1 at times, the English only axiom is so strong that they didnt trust their own practice. On the flip side, when the native language is used, practitioners, researchers, and learners consistently report positive results. Rivera (1990) outlines various models for incorporating the L1 into instruction, including initial literacy in the L1 (with or without simultaneous but separate ESL classes) and bilingual instruction (where both languages are utilized within one class). The first benefit of such programs at the beginning levels is that they attract previously un-served studentsstudents who had been unable to participate in ESL classes because of limited L1 literacy and schooling. Further, contrary to the claim that use of the L1 will slow the transition to and impede the development of thinking in English, numerous accounts suggest that it may actually facilitate this process. Shamash (1990), for example, describes an approach to teaching ESL used at the Invergarry Learning Center near Vancouver which might be considered heretical by some: Students start by writing about their lives in their L1 or a mixture of their L1 and English; this text is then translated into English with the help of bilingual tutors or learners and, as such, provides a natural bridge for overcoming problems of vocabulary, sentence structure and language confidence. At a certain point in the learning process, according to Shamash, the learner is willing to experiment and take risks with English. Thus, starting with the L1 provides a sense of security and validates the learners lived experiences, allowing them to express themselves while at the same time providing meaningful written material to work with. This research had shows us that the usage of L1 in the ESL classroom is sometimes considered as vital because of the students level of proficiency. Tang (2002), based on her studies, â€Å"Using the mother tongue in the Chinese EFL classroom† bear many similarities to Schweers (1999) study in a Spanish context. Both studies indicate that the mother tongue was used by the majority of teachers investigated, and both students and teachers responded positively toward its use. Minor discrepancies exist concerning the occasions when the L1 should be used. Some of these differences can be accounted for by the participants different levels of L2 language proficiency. The teachers participating in this study indicated that the translation of some words, complex ideas, or even whole passages is a good way to learn a foreign language. Her observation of the three classes suggests that without translation, learners would be likely to make unguided and often incorrect translations. This study also reveals that in the EFL classes observed Chinese plays only a supportive and facilitating role. The chief medium of communication in the class is still English. As with any other classroom technique, the use of the mother tongue is only a means to the end of improving foreign language proficiency. She agreed with the majority of student participants (about 63 percent combined) that no more than 10 percent of class time should be spent using Chinese. In her experience, this percentage decreases as the students English proficiency increases. Of course, a translation course would be an exception. Unlike Schweers student participants, the students in the present study are highly motivated to learn English. As English majors in the university, their English language proficiency is regarded as a symbol of their identity and a route to future academic and employment opportunities. Few of them feel that English is imposed on them or regard the use of English as a threat to their identity. Instead, they generally prefer greater or exclusive use of English in the classroom. In their view, Chinese should be used only when necessary to help them learn English better. The research seems to show that limited and judicious use of the mother tongue in the English classroom does not reduce students exposure to English, but rather can assist in the teaching and learning processes (Tang, 2002). Strohmeyer and McGrail (1988) found that allowing for the exploration of ideas in the L1 served to enhance students ESL writing. When students were given the choice of writing first in Spanish, they went on to write pieces in English that were considerably more developed than their usual ESL writing. These findings from practice are supported by Garcias (1991) more formal research on effective instructional practices which found that (a) academically successful students made the transition from Spanish to English without any pressure from teachers; and (b) they were able to progress systematically from writing in the native language in initial literacy to writing in English later. A recent study by Osburne and Harss-Covaleski (1991) suggested that the widely frowned upon practice of writing first in the L1 and then translating into the L2 is not harmful to the quality of the written product. They cite the conventional wisdom that students should be discouraged from translating as this will cause them to make more errors, result in rhetorically inappropriate texts, and distract them from thinking in Englishand that all these factors would negatively affect the quality of their writing. To investigate the validity of this claim, they compared ESL compositions written directly in English with others written first in the L1 and then translated into English; their results indicated no significant difference in the quality or quantity of the written products. They conclude, It seems then that there is no need for teachers to become overly anxious if students choose to employ translation as a composing strategy at times. Friedlander (1990) cited numerous other studie s reporting the beneficial effects of using the L1 for L2 composing; his own study provides further support for L1 use in planning ESL writing when knowledge of the topic has been acquired in the L1. Mirzaei Vaezi (2007), had been conducted the study of the effect of using translation from L1 to L2 as a teaching technique on the improvement of EFL Learners Linguistic Accuracy- Focus on form. Based on the results obtained from the statistical analyses in the study, it was discovered that the idea of the effectiveness of using translation from L1 to L2 as a teaching technique to improve a group of Iranian EFL learners linguistic accuracy was supported. Therefore, it can be concluded that translating form L1 to L2, using specific structures, can enhance learners linguistic accuracy within the scope of those structures. It also manifests that learners mother tongue is not a useless element in second or foreign language learning. In other words, mother tongue, if used purposefully and systematically, can have a constructive role in teaching other languages. In effect, the purpose of the present study was to join the three vertices of the triangle i.e., first language, translation, an d focus on form. Moreover, it can be claimed that translating sentences form L1 to L2, if selected purposefully, can push learners to use specific structures accurately when producing utterances in the second language. This mental practice in transforming an idea from mother language to the second language helps the learner tackle the psycho-linguistic challenge they have to face in producing second language in real life situations. Nevertheless, when utilizing this teaching technique, the learners should be bewared about the structural differences existing between languages which may cause negative interference from their L1. In other words, learners should be warned that there is not always a structural correspondence between their first language and the language they are learning. To make it short, translation from L1 to L2 is a kind of practice which makes the learners use specific L2 structures accurately in order to express L1 ideas. This transformation—mental translation from L1 to L2â €”is a natural and sometimes inevitable process which is mostly experienced by the learners of lower levels. Consequently, as discussed above, the technique used in this study is a means through which learners can practice producing L2 grammatically correct sentences which enables them to perform accurately in communicative situations (Mirzaei Vaezi, 2007). Translation from L1 to L2 was not a strange process; nonetheless, it might not have been dealt with through systematic and research-based studies yet. Although the word translation and even mother tongue has been abominated by many so-called innovatory-oriented teachers, this study demonstrated that there are judicious ways in which language teachers can use mother tongue, in general, and translation from L1 to L2, in particular, in their instruction with the purpose of improving learners proficiency. In addition, mother tongue is truly a very rich source of linguistic knowledge with which any L2 learner is already equipped, and it does not seem reasonable to deprive our learners from using this recourse at the expense of exercising an English-only atmosphere in our classrooms. Therefore, it can be suggested that teachers be familiarized with advantages of using learners mother tongue in EFL/ESL classrooms and they should be reasonably given enough leeway to use this resource constructively. In particular, language teachers can use the technique presented in this study, i.e. using translation from L1 to L2, as a communicative task to promote their learners linguistic accuracy. Therefore, it seems reasonable to allocate some time to the training of teachers in this regard (Mirzaei Vaezi, 2007). Schweers (1999) had done a research on the attitudes toward the use of Spanish in the English classroom among the students and the teachers in Puerto Rican. A high percentage (88.7%) of the student participants in this study felt that Spanish should be used in their English classes. All of the teachers reported using Spanish to some degree. Approximately 99 percent of the students responded that they like their teachers to use only English in the classroom. Very noticeable is the 86 percent of students who would like Spanish used to explain difficult concepts. Only 22 percent of teachers saw this as an appropriate use. Students also responded notably higher than teachers on the following uses for Spanish: to help students feel more comfortable and confident, to check comprehension, and to define new vocabulary items. Neither students nor teachers saw a use for the L1 in testing. A notable percentage of students would like Spanish to be used in English class either between 10 and 39 p ercent of the time. A sizeable number of students like the use of Spanish because it helps them when they feel lost. About 87 percent of students feel Spanish facilitates their learning of English between â€Å"a little† and â€Å"a lot,† and about 57 percent think it helps from â€Å"fairly much† to â€Å"a lot.† These results showed that in English classes in a Puerto Rican university, Spanish should be used to some degree. Students feel there are clear cases where Spanish will facilitate their comprehension of what is happening in class. A majority also agree that the use of Spanish helps them to learn English. Studying students reactions to the use of the L1 in English classes, Terence Doyle (1997), in his presentation at TESOL 97, reported that students in a study he conducted claimed that the L1 was used approximately 90 percent of the time in their classes. Some 65 percent of these students preferred the use of the L1 in their classes sometimes or often. While the first figure is comparable to the one he found in his study, the second is higher than the percentage in his study. Romstedt (2000) had conducted a research of the effects of L1 Pre-writing discussion on ESL writing. The subjects of the study were thirty five graduate and undergraduate students, both male and female representing six native languages at two different levels of intensive English instruction. The general conclusi Native Language in Foreign Language Learning Native Language in Foreign Language Learning 1.1 Introduction The debate over whether English language classrooms should include or exclude students native language has been a controversial issue for a long time (Brown, 2000). Although the use of mother tongue was banned by the supporters of the Direct Method at the end of the nineteenth century, the positive role of the mother tongue has recurrently been acknowledged as a rich resource which, if used judiciously, can assist second language learning and teaching (Cook, 2001). Therefore, this research study tries to open up a new horizon for English instructors to find a thoughtful way to use learners mother tongue in second language teaching. The technique in which L1 was used in this study was translation from L1 to L2, a technique which was rarely used by EFL teachers. Atkinson (1987) was one of the first and chief advocates of mother tongue use in the communicative classroom. He points out the methodological gap in the literature concerning the use of the mother tongue and argues a case in favour of its restricted and principled use, mainly in accuracy-oriented tasks. In his article, Atkinson (1987) clearly stated that translation to the target language which emphasizes a recently taught language item is a means to reinforce structural, conceptual and sociolinguistic differences between the native and target languages. In his view, even though this activity is not communicative, it aims at improving accuracy of the newly learned structures. Similarly, this research aimed at investigating the effect of translation from L1 to L2 on the accurate use of the structures. The arguments in supports of using the learners mother tongue in L2 instruction clearly reveal that not only doesnt the use of first language have a negative impact on L2 learning, but it can be factor to help students improve the way they learn a second language. Although the English Only paradigm continues to be dominant in communicative language teaching , research into teacher practice reveals that the L1 is used as a learning resource in many ESL classes (Auerbach, 1993). Auerbach added that when the native language was used, practitioners, researchers, and learners consistently report positive results. Furthermore, he identifies the following uses of mother tongue in the classroom: classroom management, language analysis and presenting rules that govern grammar, discussing cross-cultural issues, giving instructions or prompts, explaining errors, and checking comprehension. Although the provision of maximum L2 exposure to the learners seems essential, L1 can be used alongside L2 as a complement. In this regard, Turnbull (2001) stated that maximizing the target language use does not and should not mean that it is harmful for the teacher to use the L1. â€Å"a principle that promotes maximal teacher use of the target language acknowledges that the L1 and target language can exist simultaneously (p. 153). Similarly, Stern (1992) stated that the use of L1 and target language should be seen as complementary, depending on the characteristics and stages of the language learning process (p. 285). On the other hand, overuse of L1 will naturally reduce the amount of exposure to L2. Therefore, attempt should be made to keep a balance between L1 and L2 use. In this regard, Turnbull (2001) acknowledges that although it is efficient to make a quick switch to the L1 to ensure, for instance, whether students understand a difficult grammar concept or an unknown word, it is crucial for teachers to use the target language as much as possible in contexts in which students spend only short periods of time in class, and when they have little contact with the target language outside the classroom. 1.2 Background to the problem The Integrated Secondary School Curriculum or Kurikulum Bersepadu Sekolah Menengah (KBSM) was planned in accordance with the National Education Philosophy. The main goal of KBSM was based on the integrated self-development with orientation towards society or nation (Mak Soon Sang, 2003). Four language skills namely listening, speaking, reading and writing are incorporated in the English syllabus proficiency in order to meet their needs to use English in everyday life, for knowledge acquisition, and for future workplace needs (Kementerian Pendidikan Malaysia, 2000). My personal experience as a learner has shown me that moderate and judicious use of the mother tongue can aid and facilitate the learning and teaching of the target language, a view shared by many colleagues of mine. However the value of using the mother tongue is a neglected topic in the TESL methodology literature. This omission, together with the widely advocated principle that the native language should not be used in the second language classroom, makes most teachers, experienced or not, feels uneasy about using L1 or permitting its use in the classroom, even when there is a need to do so. How do students and teachers look at this issue? Schweers (1999) conducted a study with EFL students and their teachers in a Spanish context to investigate their attitudes toward using L1 and in the L2 classroom. His result indicates that the majority of students and teachers agreed that Spanish should be used in the EFL classroom (Schweers 1999). Inspired by his research and driven by my own interest, the researcher decided to carry out a similar study on the use of the native language (Malay) in the Malaysian context. However, differences exist between Schweers study and mine. 1.3. Statement of the problem Many rural school students have difficulty in understanding English, and they have often found it difficult to read English books on their own (Ratnawati and Ismail, 2003). Students lack of proficiency in English deprives them of the opportunities open to those who are able to use the language well. Recently, the teaching and learning of English has been discussed widely in Malaysia. This is because the low level of English proficiency among students hinders them from acquiring knowledge globally. Students L1 are being use in the ESL classroom especially in the rural area to help them understand English better and find out if it is an effective teaching and learning tool. Because of the students difficulty in understanding the language, teachers need to assist them thoroughly in the learning process. With the using of the L1, this will gain their interest to stay focus in the class and not being de-motivated in learning the target language. The prohibition of the native language would maximize the effectiveness of learning the target language will be a question that we need to find out. 1.4. Purposes of the study The purpose of the study is to determine whether the L1 (Malay language) are use frequently in the rural ESL classroom. The important of this study is to find out whether L1 works as an effective teaching and learning instrument. 1.5. Research questions Research questions for this study are; How frequent the Malay language was used in the Malaysian English classroom and for what purposes? Can prohibition of L1 (Malay language) maximize the interest of using English in the classroom? What are the perception of the students and the teachers towards using Malay in the English classroom? 1.6. Theoretical For this study, the researcher referred to the theory of SLA that interrelated set of hypothesis or claims about how people become proficient in a second language. In a summary of research findings on SLA, Lightbown (1985: 176-180) made the following claims: Adults and adolescents can â€Å"acquire† a second language. The learner creates a systematic inter-language that is often characterized by the same language as the first language, as well as others that appear to be based on the learners own native language. There are predictable sequences in acquisition so that certain structures have to be acquired before others can be integrated. Practice does not make perfect. Knowing language rule does not mean one will be able to use it in communicative interaction. Isolated explicit error correction is usually effective in changing language behavior. For most adult learners, acquisition stop-â€Å"fossilizes†-before the learner has achieved native-like mastery of the target language. One cannot achieve native-like or non native-like command of a second language in one hour a day. The learners task is enormous because language is enormously complex. A learners ability to understand language in a meaningful context exceeds his or her ability to comprehend de-contextualized language and to produce language of comparable complexity and accuracy. The hypothesis will be the first tool for the measurement of how the students in the rural ESL classroom comprehend with target language. Learning is a long life process so the students need a proper guide to lead them in gaining the language proficiency. There are some modifications that need to be made in using these hypotheses so it will be suit to the learners need in the rural area. There are some mistakes that made by the learners that due to interference from their first language and the learners errors should be corrected as soon as they are made in order to prevent the formation of bad habits. The acquisition-learning hypothesis Stephen Krashen (1977) claimed that adult second language learners have two means for internalizing the target language. The first is â€Å"acquisition†, a subconscious and intuitive process of constructing the system of a language. The second means is a conscious â€Å"learning† process in which learners attend to form, figure out rules, and are generally aware of their own process. According to Krashen, â€Å"fluency in second language performance is due to what we have acquired, not what we have learned† (1981a:99). Adults should, therefore, do as much acquiring as possible in order to achieve communicative fluency; otherwise, they will get bogged of language and to watching their own progress. For Krashen (1982), our conscious learning processes and our subconscious process mutually exclusive: learning cannot become acquisition. This claim of no interface between acquisition and learning is used to strengthen the argument for recommending large doses of acqui sition activity in the classroom, with only a very minor role assigned to learning. The input hypothesis Krashens claims that an important â€Å"condition for language acquisition to occur is that the acquirer understand (via hearing or reading input language that contains structure a bit beyond his or her current level of competence†¦..if an acquirer is at stage or level i , the input he or she understands should contain i +1† (Krashen1981:100). In other words, the language that learners are exposed to should be just far enough beyond their current competence that they can understand most of it but still challenged to make progress. The corollary to this is that input should neither be so far beyond their reach that they are overwhelmed (this might be, say, i + 2) nor so close to their current stage that they are not challenged at all (i + 0). Important parts of the Input Hypothesis are recommendation that speaking not be though directly or very early in the language classroom. Speech will be emerging once the acquirer has built up enough comprehensible input ( i + 1). Success in a foreign language can be attributed to input alone. Such a theory ascribes little credit to learners and their own active engagement in the process. Moreover, it is important to distinguish between input and intake. Intake is what you take with you over a period of time and can later remember. Krashen (1983) did suggest that input gets converted to knowledge through a learners current internalized rule system and the new input. The application of these theories will help the study in measuring how effective the use of L1 in the ESL classroom based on the prior knowledge of the participants and in what way the theories will help the researches defines the result of the studies. Motivation Theory Various definitions of motivation have been proposed over decades of research and three different perspectives emerge: From a behaviourist perspective, motivation was seen in matter of fact terms. It is quite simply the anticipation or reward. Driven to acquire positive reinforcement, and driven by previous reinforcement, and driven by previous experiences of reward for behaviour, we act accordingly to achieve further reinforcement. In this view, our acts are likely to be at the mercy of external forces. In cognitive terms, motivation places much more emphasis on the individuals decisions. Ausubel (1968:368-379), for example, identified six needs undergirding the construct of motivation: a. The need for exploration, for seeing the other side of the mountain, for probing the unknown; b. The need for manipulation, for operating- to use Skinners term- on the environment and causing change; c. The need for activity, for movement and exercise, both physical and mental; d. The need for stimulation, the need to be stimulated by the environment, by the other people, or by ideas, thoughts, and feelings; e. The need for knowledge, the need to process and internalize the result of exploration, manipulation, activity, and stimulation, to resolve contradictions, to quest for solutions to problems and for self consistent systems of knowledge; f. Finally, the need for ego enhancement, for the self to be known and to be accepted and approved by others. 3) A constructivist view of motivation places even further emphasis on social context as well as individual person choices (Williams Burden 1997:120). Each person is motivated differently, and will therefore act on his or her environment in ways that are unique. Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation Edward Deci (1975:23) defined intrinsic motivation: â€Å"Intrinsically motivated activities are ones for which there is no apparent reward except the activity itself. People seem to engage in the activities for their own sake and not because they lead to an extrinsic reward†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.intrinsically motivated behaviours are aimed at bringing about certain internally rewarding consequences, namely, feelings of competence and self determination†. Extrinsically motivated behaviours, on the other hand, are carried out in anticipation of a reward from outside and beyond the self. Behaviours initiated solely to avoid punishment are also extrinsically motivated, even though numerous intrinsic benefits can ultimately accrue to those who instead, view punishment avoidance as a challenge that can build their sense of competence and self determination. The intrinsic and extrinsic continuum in motivation is applicable to foreign language classrooms and around the world. Regardless of the cultural beliefs and attitudes of learners and teachers, intrinsic and extrinsic factors can be easily identified (Dornyei and Csizer 1998). During the classroom observations, the researcher will identify whether the teacher use this kind of method. If the students communicate with their L1, should the teacher give a punishment or give them the motivation to communicate with L1 as long it will help the students to understand the whole lesson. 1.7. Significance of the study It is hope that the study will: Help all the teachers in selecting the best method in teaching the ESL classroom especially in the rural area. Determine the appropriateness of using the Malay in the ESL classroom. Enable the teacher to realize the important of using the L1 in the ESL classroom at the rural area. Help the students to gain their interest in learning the target language by giving them the opportunity to use their L1 while learning ESL. 1.8. Limitation of the study This study was undertaken with the following limitations; The small sample clearly does not represent the whole population of students in SMK in Felda Gedangsa. The sample taken is 40 students from one class in Felda Gedangsa. The reliability and validity of the survey instruments may be questioned. The questionnaire is not based on any existing survey instrument, which had been tested and/ or certified in terms of reliability and validity. The questionnaire is developed specifically for this study. The time constrain will limit the quality of the study. SMK Felda Gedangsa is situated in Ulu Selangor district and about 30KM from UPSI. It will take a long time in doing this study. The students level of proficiency is at the lower level and they will need help in understanding the questionnaires. 1.9. Summary Understanding of English is crucial for every student in the ESL classroom. Without a proper guide from the teacher, they will lose their motivation in learning. Teacher need to be ready with a proper methods and teaching skills and should not ignore the use of L1 in the classroom. With the lacking of vocabulary and understanding towards certain aspects in the learning process, surely the use of L1 in the classroom should be considered to guide the students. REVIEW OF LITERATURE 2.1. Introduction This paper provides a review of the literature on students L1 are being used in the ESL classroom especially in the rural area and find out if it is an effective teaching and learning tool. There are several studies which are significance to the focus of this study. The summaries of previous work related to the hypothesis of the study are listed below. Long (1985, 1996), adapted the input Hypothesis to include interaction. His modified Input Hypothesis (1996) focuses on negotiation of meaning that occurs when communication breaks down. It proposes that oral input that is simplified through interactional modification is more successful than non-interactionally modified input in promoting learner comprehension, which in turn facilitates language acquisition. This hypothesis claims that the modified output produced by learners who are interacting in order to negotiate meaning can also aid acquisition. In this view, which gives importance to input that has been simplified through interaction, there is a possible role for the use of the learners L1 in the interactive input. Modified must give the learner information related to the linguistic form that were problematic and the use of the L1 is a potential source of this critical information (Gillis, 2007). 2.2. Close studies on the Using of L1 in the ESL Classroom Research on the usage of the L1 in the ESL classroom is a vital has demonstrated that L1 are not only effective but necessary for adult ESL students with limited L1 literacy or schooling and that use of students linguistic resources can be beneficial at all levels of ESL (Auerbach 1993). Auerbach (1993), performed a research on the topic of â€Å"Do you believe that ESL students should be allowed to use their L1 in the ESL classroom†? Only 20% of the respondents gave an unqualified yes to the question; 30% gave an unqualified no, (with comments such as, Its a school policy and No but its hard); the remaining 50% said sometimes (with comments such as Usually not, but if I have tried several times to explain something in English and a student still doesnt understand, then I allow another student who speaks the same language to explain in that language; Theyre going to do it anyway; As a last resort). The essence of these comments is captured by the following response In general ESL students should be encouraged to use English as much as possible, but in reality this doesnt always work. Thus, despite the fact that 80% of the teachers allowed the use of the L1 at times, the English only axiom is so strong that they didnt trust their own practice. On the flip side, when the native language is used, practitioners, researchers, and learners consistently report positive results. Rivera (1990) outlines various models for incorporating the L1 into instruction, including initial literacy in the L1 (with or without simultaneous but separate ESL classes) and bilingual instruction (where both languages are utilized within one class). The first benefit of such programs at the beginning levels is that they attract previously un-served studentsstudents who had been unable to participate in ESL classes because of limited L1 literacy and schooling. Further, contrary to the claim that use of the L1 will slow the transition to and impede the development of thinking in English, numerous accounts suggest that it may actually facilitate this process. Shamash (1990), for example, describes an approach to teaching ESL used at the Invergarry Learning Center near Vancouver which might be considered heretical by some: Students start by writing about their lives in their L1 or a mixture of their L1 and English; this text is then translated into English with the help of bilingual tutors or learners and, as such, provides a natural bridge for overcoming problems of vocabulary, sentence structure and language confidence. At a certain point in the learning process, according to Shamash, the learner is willing to experiment and take risks with English. Thus, starting with the L1 provides a sense of security and validates the learners lived experiences, allowing them to express themselves while at the same time providing meaningful written material to work with. This research had shows us that the usage of L1 in the ESL classroom is sometimes considered as vital because of the students level of proficiency. Tang (2002), based on her studies, â€Å"Using the mother tongue in the Chinese EFL classroom† bear many similarities to Schweers (1999) study in a Spanish context. Both studies indicate that the mother tongue was used by the majority of teachers investigated, and both students and teachers responded positively toward its use. Minor discrepancies exist concerning the occasions when the L1 should be used. Some of these differences can be accounted for by the participants different levels of L2 language proficiency. The teachers participating in this study indicated that the translation of some words, complex ideas, or even whole passages is a good way to learn a foreign language. Her observation of the three classes suggests that without translation, learners would be likely to make unguided and often incorrect translations. This study also reveals that in the EFL classes observed Chinese plays only a supportive and facilitating role. The chief medium of communication in the class is still English. As with any other classroom technique, the use of the mother tongue is only a means to the end of improving foreign language proficiency. She agreed with the majority of student participants (about 63 percent combined) that no more than 10 percent of class time should be spent using Chinese. In her experience, this percentage decreases as the students English proficiency increases. Of course, a translation course would be an exception. Unlike Schweers student participants, the students in the present study are highly motivated to learn English. As English majors in the university, their English language proficiency is regarded as a symbol of their identity and a route to future academic and employment opportunities. Few of them feel that English is imposed on them or regard the use of English as a threat to their identity. Instead, they generally prefer greater or exclusive use of English in the classroom. In their view, Chinese should be used only when necessary to help them learn English better. The research seems to show that limited and judicious use of the mother tongue in the English classroom does not reduce students exposure to English, but rather can assist in the teaching and learning processes (Tang, 2002). Strohmeyer and McGrail (1988) found that allowing for the exploration of ideas in the L1 served to enhance students ESL writing. When students were given the choice of writing first in Spanish, they went on to write pieces in English that were considerably more developed than their usual ESL writing. These findings from practice are supported by Garcias (1991) more formal research on effective instructional practices which found that (a) academically successful students made the transition from Spanish to English without any pressure from teachers; and (b) they were able to progress systematically from writing in the native language in initial literacy to writing in English later. A recent study by Osburne and Harss-Covaleski (1991) suggested that the widely frowned upon practice of writing first in the L1 and then translating into the L2 is not harmful to the quality of the written product. They cite the conventional wisdom that students should be discouraged from translating as this will cause them to make more errors, result in rhetorically inappropriate texts, and distract them from thinking in Englishand that all these factors would negatively affect the quality of their writing. To investigate the validity of this claim, they compared ESL compositions written directly in English with others written first in the L1 and then translated into English; their results indicated no significant difference in the quality or quantity of the written products. They conclude, It seems then that there is no need for teachers to become overly anxious if students choose to employ translation as a composing strategy at times. Friedlander (1990) cited numerous other studie s reporting the beneficial effects of using the L1 for L2 composing; his own study provides further support for L1 use in planning ESL writing when knowledge of the topic has been acquired in the L1. Mirzaei Vaezi (2007), had been conducted the study of the effect of using translation from L1 to L2 as a teaching technique on the improvement of EFL Learners Linguistic Accuracy- Focus on form. Based on the results obtained from the statistical analyses in the study, it was discovered that the idea of the effectiveness of using translation from L1 to L2 as a teaching technique to improve a group of Iranian EFL learners linguistic accuracy was supported. Therefore, it can be concluded that translating form L1 to L2, using specific structures, can enhance learners linguistic accuracy within the scope of those structures. It also manifests that learners mother tongue is not a useless element in second or foreign language learning. In other words, mother tongue, if used purposefully and systematically, can have a constructive role in teaching other languages. In effect, the purpose of the present study was to join the three vertices of the triangle i.e., first language, translation, an d focus on form. Moreover, it can be claimed that translating sentences form L1 to L2, if selected purposefully, can push learners to use specific structures accurately when producing utterances in the second language. This mental practice in transforming an idea from mother language to the second language helps the learner tackle the psycho-linguistic challenge they have to face in producing second language in real life situations. Nevertheless, when utilizing this teaching technique, the learners should be bewared about the structural differences existing between languages which may cause negative interference from their L1. In other words, learners should be warned that there is not always a structural correspondence between their first language and the language they are learning. To make it short, translation from L1 to L2 is a kind of practice which makes the learners use specific L2 structures accurately in order to express L1 ideas. This transformation—mental translation from L1 to L2â €”is a natural and sometimes inevitable process which is mostly experienced by the learners of lower levels. Consequently, as discussed above, the technique used in this study is a means through which learners can practice producing L2 grammatically correct sentences which enables them to perform accurately in communicative situations (Mirzaei Vaezi, 2007). Translation from L1 to L2 was not a strange process; nonetheless, it might not have been dealt with through systematic and research-based studies yet. Although the word translation and even mother tongue has been abominated by many so-called innovatory-oriented teachers, this study demonstrated that there are judicious ways in which language teachers can use mother tongue, in general, and translation from L1 to L2, in particular, in their instruction with the purpose of improving learners proficiency. In addition, mother tongue is truly a very rich source of linguistic knowledge with which any L2 learner is already equipped, and it does not seem reasonable to deprive our learners from using this recourse at the expense of exercising an English-only atmosphere in our classrooms. Therefore, it can be suggested that teachers be familiarized with advantages of using learners mother tongue in EFL/ESL classrooms and they should be reasonably given enough leeway to use this resource constructively. In particular, language teachers can use the technique presented in this study, i.e. using translation from L1 to L2, as a communicative task to promote their learners linguistic accuracy. Therefore, it seems reasonable to allocate some time to the training of teachers in this regard (Mirzaei Vaezi, 2007). Schweers (1999) had done a research on the attitudes toward the use of Spanish in the English classroom among the students and the teachers in Puerto Rican. A high percentage (88.7%) of the student participants in this study felt that Spanish should be used in their English classes. All of the teachers reported using Spanish to some degree. Approximately 99 percent of the students responded that they like their teachers to use only English in the classroom. Very noticeable is the 86 percent of students who would like Spanish used to explain difficult concepts. Only 22 percent of teachers saw this as an appropriate use. Students also responded notably higher than teachers on the following uses for Spanish: to help students feel more comfortable and confident, to check comprehension, and to define new vocabulary items. Neither students nor teachers saw a use for the L1 in testing. A notable percentage of students would like Spanish to be used in English class either between 10 and 39 p ercent of the time. A sizeable number of students like the use of Spanish because it helps them when they feel lost. About 87 percent of students feel Spanish facilitates their learning of English between â€Å"a little† and â€Å"a lot,† and about 57 percent think it helps from â€Å"fairly much† to â€Å"a lot.† These results showed that in English classes in a Puerto Rican university, Spanish should be used to some degree. Students feel there are clear cases where Spanish will facilitate their comprehension of what is happening in class. A majority also agree that the use of Spanish helps them to learn English. Studying students reactions to the use of the L1 in English classes, Terence Doyle (1997), in his presentation at TESOL 97, reported that students in a study he conducted claimed that the L1 was used approximately 90 percent of the time in their classes. Some 65 percent of these students preferred the use of the L1 in their classes sometimes or often. While the first figure is comparable to the one he found in his study, the second is higher than the percentage in his study. Romstedt (2000) had conducted a research of the effects of L1 Pre-writing discussion on ESL writing. The subjects of the study were thirty five graduate and undergraduate students, both male and female representing six native languages at two different levels of intensive English instruction. The general conclusi

Monday, August 19, 2019

Thomas Moore Lacked Common Sense :: Philosophy Essays

Thomas Moore Lacked Common Sense Moore was a great philosopher. He really deserves a hand for his proof for an external world. Moore did something that no other philosopher had done before or has done since; he successfully proved the existence of an external world. Not only did he prove the existence of an external world in fact, but he also did it rather briefly and with no further resources necessary than his own two hands. Once one is acquainted with Moore’s proof, it becomes evident almost immediately just how much sense Moore’s â€Å"common sense† makes. To start with, in the proof of an external world, Moore sets some goals. These goals are to â€Å"clarify the problem of the existence of external objects† and to â€Å"prove that external objects exist† (Goldstein 2002, handout). Moore goes on to prove these goals with his brilliant proof of his theories. The proof as a whole is actually two proofs, one being a sub-derivation of the other. It is beneficial to the student of philosophy if they attempt these proofs as the study Moore. The requirements for the first proof are two hands, so anyone attempting this proof needs to acquire two hands. Now, one must follow Moore’s proof exactly, saying first â€Å"here is one hand, and here is another,† then gesturing with both hands (Pojman 2003, 53). It is important that these steps be followed precisely; else, Moore’s proof is not reproduced but is instead bastardized. The conclusion, which follows from this premise, is that there are two hands. The second proof begins with these premises: 1. If there are two hands here, there are physical objects. 2. There are two hands here. 3. If there are physical objects, there are external objects. 4. There are physical objects. The conclusion that follows is, â€Å"Therefore, there are external objects,† (Pojman 2003, 53-54). So, there is no possible argument that could break so sound a logic as this, if the premises are true then they must guarantee the truth of the conclusion if this is a valid argument.

Understanding Huntingtons Disease Essay examples -- Health Medicine

Understanding Huntington's Disease Diagnosis of Huntington's Disease Today, a blood test is available to diagnose a person displaying suspected Huntington's symptoms. The test analyzes DNA in the blood sample and counts the number of times the genetic code for the mutated Huntington's gene is repeated. Individuals with Huntington's Disease usually have 40 or more such "repeats;" those without it, 28 or fewer. If the number of repeats falls somewhere in between then more extensive neurological and diagnostic testing are called for. Tests of the patients hearing, eye movements, strength, feeling, reflexes, balance, movement and mental condition will follow. The patient may also be asked about any recent intellectual or emotional problems. A computed tomography scan, positron emission tomography or magnetic resonance imaging techniques can also be prescribed. This is a painless diagnostic procedure that produces computer generated images of the brain's internal structures. Huntington's patients often show shrinkage in two particular areas of the brain, the caudate nucleus and the putamen, and enlargement of ventricles. Lastly, the discovery of an Huntington's disease genetic marker, enabled scientists to locate the Huntington's Disease gene on chromosome 4. These discoveries led to the development of an accurate presymptomatic test for detecting the presence of the HD mutation. People without symptoms, but with a family history of Huntington's often elect to undergo this testing to gain greater certainity about their genetic status. This also enables them to make more informed decisions about their future. Pre-symptomatic testing can be performed on adults, children and even unborn fetuses in the womb, raising ethical ... ...n worsen the condition by causing stiffness and rigidity. If the patient suffers from depression, the physician may prescribe fluoxetine, sertraline hydrochloride or nortriptyline. Tranquilizers can be used to treat anxiety and lithium may be prescribed to those patients with pathological excitement or severe mood swings. Works Cited Glass, M.; Dragunow, M.; Faull, R.L.M. (2000). The pattern of neurodegeneration in Huntington's disease: a comparative study of cannabinoid, dopamine, adenosine and GABAA receptor alterations in the human basal ganglia in Huntington's disease. Neuroscience. 97:3; 505-519. Lawrence, A.D.; Sahakian, B.J.; & Robbins, T.W. (1998). Cognitive functions and corticostriatal circuits: insights from Huntington's disease. Trends in Cognitive Sciences. 2:10; 379-388. For information regarding Huntington's Disease: http://www.hda.org.uk/

Sunday, August 18, 2019

Antony and Brutus Coercion :: essays papers

Antony and Brutus Coercion Brutus and Marc Antony’s Coercion In Coercion, Douglas Rushkoff explains how easily people are easily coerced. For example, Rushkoff states that people are convinced by car salesman to pay more for a car than they wanted to. In Julius Caesar, Marc Antony asks to speak at the funeral of his dear friend, Julius Caesar, after one of the murderers, Brutus, speaks. Brutus convinces the Romans that Caesar would be a tyrant if he did not murder him, while Antony convinces the Romans that Caesar is not ambitious and there would never be another ruler like Caesar. The art of public speaking is important in the past and present. Rushkoff explains that â€Å"they† coerce humans to think a certain way on a topic. He also asks, â€Å"Who are ‘they,’and why do we listen to them?† He states that each person has a different â€Å"they†, and defines â€Å"they† as those who seem to decide how lives are to be run and control fate and futures. He states that the best manipulation occurs when the exploitation is not detected. He disapproves of coercion because it takes advantage of susceptible human minds. Marc Antony, as well as Brutus, uses the undetected technique of coercion on the Romans. Brutus speaks first to the Romans and tells them that he and others have murdered Julius Caesar, but it is for the good of the country. Brutus claims that his reasoning behind the mutiny is that he loved Rome more than he loved Caesar. Brutus asks the Romans if they would rather be enslaved with Caesar living, or free with Caesar dead. Brutus kills Caesar because he was too ambitious. Now in Brutus’s speech, he has coerced the Romans into believing that the murder of Caesar is just. He asks the Romans whom he has offended by loving Rome more than any other, and he does not receive a response. In Brutus’s short speech, he convinces the people that Caesar was a tyrant and that he does Rome a favor by betraying Caesar. Just as Brutus used passive coercion, Marc Antony also speaks to the Romans with the same technique. Antony gets on the pulpit and starts to speak of the Romans as people just like him, he does not place himself above the Romans, unlike Brutus. Antony begins his speech by agreeing with Brutus, which he had promised Brutus he would do. Antony and Brutus Coercion :: essays papers Antony and Brutus Coercion Brutus and Marc Antony’s Coercion In Coercion, Douglas Rushkoff explains how easily people are easily coerced. For example, Rushkoff states that people are convinced by car salesman to pay more for a car than they wanted to. In Julius Caesar, Marc Antony asks to speak at the funeral of his dear friend, Julius Caesar, after one of the murderers, Brutus, speaks. Brutus convinces the Romans that Caesar would be a tyrant if he did not murder him, while Antony convinces the Romans that Caesar is not ambitious and there would never be another ruler like Caesar. The art of public speaking is important in the past and present. Rushkoff explains that â€Å"they† coerce humans to think a certain way on a topic. He also asks, â€Å"Who are ‘they,’and why do we listen to them?† He states that each person has a different â€Å"they†, and defines â€Å"they† as those who seem to decide how lives are to be run and control fate and futures. He states that the best manipulation occurs when the exploitation is not detected. He disapproves of coercion because it takes advantage of susceptible human minds. Marc Antony, as well as Brutus, uses the undetected technique of coercion on the Romans. Brutus speaks first to the Romans and tells them that he and others have murdered Julius Caesar, but it is for the good of the country. Brutus claims that his reasoning behind the mutiny is that he loved Rome more than he loved Caesar. Brutus asks the Romans if they would rather be enslaved with Caesar living, or free with Caesar dead. Brutus kills Caesar because he was too ambitious. Now in Brutus’s speech, he has coerced the Romans into believing that the murder of Caesar is just. He asks the Romans whom he has offended by loving Rome more than any other, and he does not receive a response. In Brutus’s short speech, he convinces the people that Caesar was a tyrant and that he does Rome a favor by betraying Caesar. Just as Brutus used passive coercion, Marc Antony also speaks to the Romans with the same technique. Antony gets on the pulpit and starts to speak of the Romans as people just like him, he does not place himself above the Romans, unlike Brutus. Antony begins his speech by agreeing with Brutus, which he had promised Brutus he would do.

Saturday, August 17, 2019

The Purpose of Australias Modern Criminal Justice System

Why do we need a criminal justice system in Australia? To answer this question, We firstly need to look a couple of things to allow you a thorough understanding of what exactly the criminal justice system is, questions like, what is role that this system has to play in today’s modern & somewhat debauched society, also what are the key concepts and components of each part of the criminal justice system. It is my attention through the aid of this essay to not only explain the differing parts of the criminal justice system, but also answer the topic in question; by the time we are through you will have a thorough understanding of the Australian criminal justice system and why it is needed. What exactly is the technical meaning of â€Å"the criminal justice system†? An excellent answer to this question maybe found by looking at the Australian Bureau of Statistics (www. bs. gov. au/ausstats 1997 paragraph 2), to quote this definition directly, the Australian Bureau of Statistics defines this as â€Å"The criminal justice system is a system of laws and rulings which protect community members and their property2. It determines which events causing injury or offence to community members, are criminal. Criminal offenders may be punished through the law by fines, imprisonment and/or community service†. Ok we now have a clear definition of what the criminal justice system is we can break down this definition into key elements, and then look at the working of each element in relation to the criminal justice system as a whole. Is there only one criminal justice system in Australia or are there more? Well let’s look at the next paragraph. How many criminal justice systems are there in Australia one only or several? According to the book criminal justice, issues in society (Healey 2006 p. 18) there are nine criminal justice systems currently in operation in Australia at present. This nine comprises of one commonwealth or federal criminal justice system, which is controlled and policed by the Australian federal police. However it can be said that the federal system is not complete due to the fact the federal system corrective service department, therefore punishment for federal crimes that involves incarceration or some form of rehabilitation are facilitated by the relevant corrective service department of the appropriate state or territory. The other eight criminal justice systems are enacted by each state or territory. Each state system is very similar in the way crime and punishments are dealt with, within each state system the makeup includes the same key components. Each state criminal justice system comprises of three key elements the relevant state police force, the court system (which comprise of, local, district and supreme courts) and corrections including jails, juvenile detention centres mental health facilities as well as other rehabilitation programs. Firstly let’s look at the frontline of any criminal justice system, which is the relevant federal state or territory police force. What role do police in the criminal justice system? According to (White and Perrone 2010 p. 287-293) police are not only one of the most powerful means of social control in society but are also the most visible, police have quite a large amount of power in which they are able to use their own judgement or discretion. It is through police that offenders are first entered into the criminal justice system, or if offence is minor diverted away from criminal justice system, to quote (White & Perrone 2010 p. 87) directly â€Å"police are often described as the gate keepers of the criminal justice system†. It can be argued that by creation of laws and implementation of these laws that a person is being stripped of a small portion of one’s civil rights and social freedoms; however it is of general acceptance that the vast majority of society accepts this so called loss of rights and freedoms, to allow general level of peace and order, a system without laws and some form of soci al restrictions and civil freedoms would certainly lead to social anarchy. Not only is it the role of police to arrest and apprehend criminals but it also their role perform other essential community duties such as law & order, conflict resolution and maintenance of such resolution, police may often do this without the arrest of individuals (White & Perrone 2010 p. 287-293). Strategic planning for the prevention of crime is also just important as the apprehension of individuals by stopping the crime before it occurs. Other duties performed by today’s police force include emergency response and services e. . car accident response, traffic control and community service and many other tasks. Community service involve such mundane acts as rescuing a cat from a tree to appearing at schools educating the young. Over all it can be seen the need for policing as a vital link in the criminal justice system. In the next paragraph we will take a brief look at the various court systems. There are four main court systems in Australia three of which are state and t he other federal. The courts are (www. lawlink. nsw. gov. u 2011) the local court, which deals with such matters as Family law involves issues such as domestic violence orders, power of attorney and also enduring guardianship etc. Also the local court deals with Monetary issues such as small claims arising from motor vehicle accidents etc. monies owed that are payable such overdue fines etc. Local courts also deal with minor criminal offences including such things as drink driving, minor assaults, break and enter and breaches of AVOs etc. and also minor traffic incidents The district court for want of a better term is the â€Å"middle† court. The district court is a trial court dealing with both criminal and civil matters and also can preside over certain tribunals. The district court is headed by a chief judge. The Supreme Court is the highest of the state courts. The Supreme Court has unlimited civil jurisdiction and handles the most serious of criminal offences. The last court which is the highest court in Australia is the federal court or High Court of Australia which deals with all matters that are to do with the Commonwealth of Australia. We now have a brief understanding of the four main court systems of Australia so now let’s take a look at the last element of the criminal justice system that is that of corrective services. According to (www. correctiveservices. nsw. gov. au accessed 30/5/2010) the role of Corrective Services is to provide not only custodial sentencing but also non-custodial supervised punishments such as community service, in home detention and parole. Corrective services also provide pre-release reports on offenders to determine the risk of Recidivism or for the want of a better word re-offend. Now we have had a look at the key facets of the criminal justice system and how each interlocks with the next i. e. the police (first line of contact for the criminal justice system, arrest or caution offenders, if police arrest the offender then moves on to the relevant court system depend on relevant type and severity of crime, which in turn makes a judgement, on whether the person in question is a risk to society. If the courts come to the decision that the offender is of danger to the public they are incarcerated, or if offence is not so serious the judgement can be made to se other parts of corrections to allow for rehabilitation etc. of person in question. I hope I have helped you the reader to clearly see and understand why it is vital that any socialised society requires a criminal justice system to not only keep order in society but to also provide protection and justice for each and every individuals personal and social rights and well being. References Australian Bureau of Statistics 4102. 0 – Australian Social Trends, 19/06/1997 (accessed30/6/2010) www. bs. gov. au/ausstats/[email  protected] nsf/2f762f95845417aeca25706c00834efa/a4d719473be50fdfca2570ec001b2c95! OpenDocument Healy, J. (2006). Criminal Justice, issues in society volume 32. NSW Australia: spinney press White, R. , & Perrone, S (2010) Crime, Criminality & Criminal Justice Melbourne Australia: Oxford University Press New South Wales Government Corrective Services NSW Statement of Purpose (Accessed 28/6/2010) www. correctiveservices. nsw. gov. au/about-us/statement-of-purpose

Friday, August 16, 2019

Small Objects: a Literary Analysis of Lullabies for Little Criminals

Small Objects: A Literary Analysis of â€Å"Lullabies for Little Criminals† In â€Å"Lullabies for Little Criminals,† there are many small objects that are relevant to Baby’s life. Objects can have remarkably profound effects on a person’s life, whether they are of sentimental value or another form of personal meaning, they have an impact on us. An object can mean many things to different people. An abandoned doll in a trash bin could be seen as old and ugly to an average person, but to the person who originally owned the doll; it could have been particularly special.In the novel, Heather O’Neil illustrates the effects of such objects on Baby and their symbolic meaning. In â€Å"Lullabies for Little Criminals,† there are three objects that represent Baby’s growth and change throughout the novel: the ragdoll, the knee- high socks, and the toy mice. When introducing her new friend Lauren to her room, Baby reflects on her rag doll,  "It was a doll that my mother had bought for me when she was pregnant . . . The doll also made me feel sweet inside, too, because it made me feel that at some point, even before I existed, I had been loved† (O’Neill 97-98).This illustrates Baby’s longing for a loving mother figure, which is a reasonable expectation from a 12 year old girl. Loving care is a critical need of any child. Baby does not have that feeling of being loved; therefore, she finds comfort in the fact that she was once loved. The doll is also representative of her current state of mind. Such as her wishes to be normal: have normal friends, normal parents, normal family; a normal life. When Jules destroys Baby’s rag doll out of anger, it is symbolic of a lost childhood.Her last reminder of the love her mother had for her had been torn away. Baby says, â€Å"Now I was nothing, a real nobody (O’Neill 119). The destruction of her doll meant that her sense of belonging, that she was once part of a family, was now gone. She seems as if she is being pulled into adolescence without having any real sense of true childhood. When the character Alphonse begins to take an interest in Baby, his first attempt to make Baby take an interest in him is to give her a gift. The gift is a pair of dainty knee-high socks.Baby wants nice things, and these socks were, according to baby, â€Å"the first pretty things I’d ever owned† (O’Neill 155). This gift is exhilarating for her. It is an acknowledgment from someone who believed she was attractive, especially coming from Alphonse. According the others in the neighborhood, it was known that Alphonse only looked out for good looking women, so if he took notice of someone, it meant something (O’Neill 148). It is particularly clear to the reader that Alphonse likely has ulterior motives, but to baby Alphonse is simply someone who likes her.The socks remind Baby that she is pretty, and she is proud of the fa ct that an older man found her attractive. In turn, this causes baby to trust Alphonse and fall for his manipulation, leading towards what could be a life of prostitution. The socks are symbolic of Baby being forced into adulthood. Baby is still young and naive; she has no way of understanding what Alphonse is attempting to do. Therefore, the socks may also represent Baby’s vulnerability and lack of ability to judge character.At this point in the novel, Baby has not had a proper childhood or even learned any of what it means to be a teenage person, and now she is already being pushed into adulthood. After Alphonse dies in the hotel room, Baby does not know what to do. She is lost without an adult. She realizes, â€Å"Even though I was making all the money, it seemed that since he was the adult, he was the only one who could get us a place to stay and food to eat† (O’Neill 309). It is clear that Baby is still mentally and physically a child, but has taken on the role of an adult.Since there is no longer an adult in her life, she is immediately overwhelmed. She does not think seeing Jules is a good idea (O’Neill 311), however, for some reason she is compelled to go to the shelter in which he is residing in. It seems that Baby’s situation may be hopeless. Baby’s arrival to the Mission seems to be the crucial turning point in the novel. She is presented with a family of toy mice, which baby believes to be â€Å"by far, the best gift I’d ever gotten† (O’Neill 317). An innocent and beautiful gift, which is exactly what Baby needs, something she has not had in an exceptionally long time.The mice are given along with the knowledge that she will be living Jules’s cousin from now on. The mice represent the possibilities of positive change in Baby’s life. They are symbolic of hope; the possibility that she will find what she needs. In â€Å"Lullabies for Little Criminals,† the use of obje cts to create symbolic meaning is abundantly evident and illustrates the roles Baby assumes as the novel progresses. She does not experience growing up in the same way most children do. She seems to go from child, to adolescent teen, to adult, in approximately a year.The roles she assumes show her growth in a manner that is unnatural to the reader, and the use of symbolism to show how this process is forced onto her is profound. The symbolism of the toy mice representing change shows Baby’s final step towards becoming a â€Å"normal† person. The author’s use of this immediately after the seemingly darkest point in the novel serves to create an emotional uplift for the reader; ultimately allowing the reader to realize that the character is going to be alright. The narrator states, â€Å"Then Janine stepped over to me and squeezed me hard.I could feel my heart beating when she hugged me against her, but now it felt fine . . . Her big blue eyes looked just like Ju les’s, and I guess mine too. Her green winter jacket smelled like rain† (O’Neill 330). The final paragraph of the novel shows that Baby will likely get exactly what she wanted: Love, a caring person, family, belonging, and most importantly, the opportunity to find herself. Work Cited O’Neill, Heather. Lullabies for Little Criminals. 1st ed. Toronto: Harper Perennial, 2006. Print

Thursday, August 15, 2019

Exercise Intervention Anxiety Disorder Health And Social Care Essay

Background: The wellness benefits of exercising are good documented and these effects could assist people with anxiousness upset, affectional and temper upset, and substances abuse. Mental upsets are major public wellness significance. It has been claimed that vigorous physical activity has positive effects on mental wellness in both clinical and nonclinical populations. This paper reviews the grounds for this claim and provides recommendations for future surveies. Aims: To find the mental wellness effects of exercising for people with anxiousness upset, affectional and temper upset, and substances use upset. Search Scheme: Clinical tests on anxiousness upset, affectional and temper upset, and substances use upset ( August 2010 ) were searched based on Cochraine, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, PsycheArticles, Sport Discuss, and PubMed database. Mentions from relevant documents were besides inspected. Choice Standards: All randomized controlled tests comparing any intercession where physical activity or exercising was considered to be the chief or active ingredient with standard attention or other interventions for people with anxiousness upset, affectional and temper upset, and substances use upset. Data Collection & A ; Analysis: Citations and abstract were inspected and the quality is assessed, and the informations were extracted. Main consequence: Ten randomised clinical tests met the inclusion standards. Tests assessed the effects of exercising on physical and mental wellness for affective/mood and anxiousness upset, besides the ingestion alteration on illicit drugs and intoxicant. Overall figure go forthing the tests were & lt ; 50 % . Most tests use exercising as accessory intervention to standard attention and found important ( p & lt ; 0.05 ) consequence of exercising towards better mental province and habit-forming behaviour. Exercise were found to better physical fittingness ( VO2 max = 0.48 mlO2/min ) . There is no important consequence of exercising activity and strength in anxiousness upset but important for depression and substance usage upset ( DASS Cohen ‘s vitamin D = 0.82, Depression: d= 0.57, Anxiety d= 0.92, Stress d= 0.76 ; PDA & gt ; 60 % ) . Exercise consequence is higher than standard attention entirely or accessory intervention with speculation. Exercise dose differs for underlying fitness degree, p hysical well-being, and age. Green environment act as accelerator while smoking behavior block the fittingness result. Background There are about 450 million people suffered from mental and behavioural upsets worldwide. One individual in four will develop one or more of these upsets during their life-time [ 1 ] . Mental upsets contribute to about 11 % of 1996 disease load worldwide and it is predicted that it will increase up to 15 % in 2020 [ 2 ] . By looking at local context, about half of Australian population experience mental unwellness at some point of their life-time [ 3 ] , which contribute 13.3 % of the entire state load of disease and hurt in 2003 [ 4 ] . A good mental wellness enable single to manage daily events and obstructions, work on their ends, and map efficaciously in society. Minor perturbations in mental wellness could with detain early intercession will non merely a suffered to the person but besides a load to their households and society well. The economic and personal costs of mental unwellness are besides the major concerned in societal and public wellness. Exercise was believed to heighten person ‘s ability to get by with and pull off their mental upset apart from its good documented physical wellness benefit. Improved quality of life is peculiarly of import for persons with terrible and digesting mental wellness jobs as exercising may relieve depression, low self-pride and societal backdown. A Mental upset is normally determined through clinical diagnosings utilizing the ICD10 or DSM-IV standards. In Australia, anxiousness upset, affectional and temper upset and substances maltreatment are the chief mental upset in this state [ 3 ] therefore will be used in this reappraisal. Description of the status Anxiety Disorder Anxiety upsets are a group of unwellnesss characterized by relentless feelings of high anxiousness, utmost uncomfortableness and tenseness which will significantly interferes with their day-to-day life. Its frequently come out of the blue and presented with intense physical symptoms such as shortness of breath, palpitations, sudating, trembling, feelings of choking, sickness, abdominal hurt, giddiness, pins and acerate leafs, feelings of losing control and/or feelings of impending day of reckoning [ 4 ] . Anxiety upsets besides affect the manner a individual thinks, feels, and behaves. There is different figure of anxiousness upsets which include panic upset, agoraphobia, societal phobic disorder, generalized anxiousness upset, obsessive-compulsive upset, and post-traumatic emphasis upset, which most frequently begin in early maturity and common among adult females than work forces [ 5, 17 ] . It is reported that lifetime prevalence of entire anxiousness upset was 10.6 % – 16. 6 % [ 23 ] . Affectional Disorder Affectional upset characterized by dramatic alterations or extremes of temper which include frenzied or depressive episodes, and frequently combinations of the two. They may or may non hold psychotic symptoms such as psychotic beliefs, hallucinations, or other loss of contact with world [ 9 ] . This upset could be categorized into depression, dysthymic depression, passion, hypomania, and bipolar affectional upset [ 5 ] . For lifetime prevalence, the corresponding pooled incidence rates were 6.7 per 100, 3.6 per 100, and 0.9 per 100 for several major depressive upset ( MDD ) dysthymic depression upset and bipolar I disorder classs [ 16 ] . Substance usage upset Substance usage upset refers to mental and behavioural upset ensuing from psychotropic substance usage such as intoxicant, opoids, others stimulations, psychedelic drugs, baccy and volatile upsets [ 5 ] . The focal point of this paper will look at the survey on intoxicant and illicit drugs. In the short term, the person may comprehend these effects as rather desirable nevertheless, prolonged and heavy use may ensue in physical injury, dependence, and backdown jobs and long term psychological harm or societal injury. This will leads to poisoning, harmful usage, dependance, and psychotic upsets [ 5 ] . Harmful usage is diagnosed when harm has been caused to physical and mental wellness. Dependence syndrome involve strong desire to take substance and trouble in control the usage, physical backdown, tolerance, disregard of alternate pleasance and involvement, and relentless usage despite injury to self and others. Indicate prevalence of intoxicant usage upset has been estimated to be abo ut 1.7 % globally, which higher rate among work forces 2.8 % to adult females 0.5 % [ 18 ] . While, the load attributable to illicit drugs was estimated at 0.4 % of entire disease load, and economic cost of this harmful drugs dependants and usage in the United State has been estimated to be USD98 billion [ 22 ] . Exercise and mental wellness There is no individual mechanism has yet been found to adequately explicate the diverse scope of mental wellness effects possible through physical activity engagement. The plausible mechanisms for psychological alteration through physical activity and exercising autumn into one of three wide positions as explained by Mutrie ( 2003 ) where there is biochemical alterations such as increased degrees of neurotransmitters ; physiological alterations such as improved thermo-genesis, musculus and cardiovascular map and, suggested psychological alterations such as societal support, sense of liberty, improved perceptual experiences of competency, enhanced organic structure image, self-efficacy and distraction. Important of reappraisal There is a turning acknowledgment that physical activity can heighten mental wellness ( Faulkner 2005 ) . Regardless by this fact, there is still limited grounds to propose the effects of exercising on anxiousness upset, affectional and temper upset, and substances abuse reported in the population characterized by these mental unwellnesss. The intent of this reappraisal is to concentrate specifically on methodologically strict tests in updating current consensus refering the possible function of exercising in bettering the mental wellness of persons with anxiousness upset, affectional and temper upset, and substances use upset. Aim To find the mental wellness effects of exercising programmes for people with anxiousness upset, affectional and temper upset, and substances use upset, and factors that enhance the consequence. Method Types of participants Clinically diagnosed grownup ( aged 17 and supra ) with diagnosed anxiousness upset, affectional and temper upset, and substances abuse utilizing any standards, with any length of unwellness and in any intervention scene. Types of intercessions Physical activity or exercising will be the chief or active elements intercession studied in this reappraisal. As a consequence of most clinical topics is under intervention, intercession in concurrence with others will be considered every bit good. Only intercessions which address mental wellness result of exercising, its dose, and factors attribute to effectiveness will be included. Others exercise survey that potentially discussed the result of heightening physical exercising intercession on mental wellness position will besides will be included for prospective reappraisal. Types of result steps Results were groups harmonizing to appraisals of mental and physical wellness, and were grouped by different upsets, factors attribute to effectiveness, and dose exposure result. The primary result will be mental province mark. Search methods for designation of surveies Search is restricted to English literature will be used as more clip is needed for paper interlingual rendition. Electronic hunts The MEDLINE, PsychInfo, PsychArticles, PubMed, Cochrane, SportDiscuss, SAGE, Springerlink, and JSTOR articles and diary databases ( August 2010 ) were searched utilizing the phrase: [ ( physical* and ( therap* or intercession ) ) within the same field of rubric, abstract or index term Fieldss ) or ( ( fitness* or sport* or gym* or exercis* or * danc* ) in rubric, abstract and index Fieldss Reference ) or ( *exercise* or danc* or physical act* in intercessions field in Study ) ] and besides different phrases for upset studied is added in term, mention and survey field: anxiousness upset ( panic disorder*or agoraphobi*or societal phobi* or generalized anxiousness disorde* or obsessive-compulsive disorde*or post-traumatic emphasis disorde* ) , temper or affectional upset ( depressio*or dysthymi*or mani*or hypomani*or bipolar affectional disorde* ) , and substance usage upset ( alcoho*or cocain*or heroi*or ampletamin* or illicit dru* ) . Data aggregation and analysis In the choice procedure, abstracts of research documents were independently assessed by the hunts for relevancy. When abstract was ill-defined and dissensions occurred, the full study is required and the appraisal procedure repeated. With single-minded dissension, information is extracted from each survey and even from unpublished beginning for the intent of this reappraisal. Surveies are so independently assessed for its methodological quality base on sequence coevals ; allotment privacy ; blinding ; uncomplete result informations ; selective coverage of the consequences ; and any other prejudices identified. The criterion Risk Ratio and Odd ratios at 95 % assurance interval ( CI ) will be used as reading of intervention consequence. As a consequence of uninterrupted informations result in mental wellness tests are frequently non usually distributed, standards for inclusion is used where the standard divergences and agencies for the end point steps on evaluation graduated tables is obtained and the standard divergence ( SD ) , when multiplied by 2 had to be less than the average [ 19 ] . Even though some grade of loss to follow up informations must lose credibleness [ 19 ] , all test in the chief analysis will be included all. Merely survey with result of more than 50 % engagement will be interpreted. Consequence Consequences of the hunt There are about 264 electronics studies inspected and of these, 254 surveies were excluded on the footing of their abstracts. Ten randomized controlled tests ( Carta 2008 ; Jerome 2008 ; Oeland 2010 ; Doyne 1987 ; Kenzor 2008 ; Murphy 1986 ; Sinyor 1982 ; Merom 2007 ; Ng 2007 ; and Brown 2010 ) were included in this reappraisal. Extra 6 surveies ( Mackay 2009 ; Jokela 2010 ; van Hauvelen 2006 ; Perrino 2009 ; Brown 2005 ; and Tart 2010 ) were included for prospective position on exercising effectivity factors that could be used for execution of survey. Included surveies We included ten randomized controlled tests ( Carta 2008 ; Jerome 2008 ; Oeland 2010 ; Doyne 1987 ; Kenzor 2008 ; Murphy 1986 ; Sinyor 1982 ; Merom 2007 ; Ng 2007 ; and Brown 2010 ) . All surveies have been published since 1982 which illustrates turning attending to the function of exercising as a signifier of accessory therapy for the focussed mental unwellnesss. One survey ( Merom 2007 ) investigated the effects of an exercising programme on anxiousness upset where brisk walking exercising and others exercisings were implemented. The 8 -10 hebdomads plan lengths, with exercising dosage of & gt ; 30 proceedingss continuance, done five times per hebdomad have shown a singular lessening of anxiousness among patients in the intercession group. Compare with others mental illness surveies ; there are legion surveies on affectional and temper upset. Reviewed surveies shows that exercising does work to cut down depression and anxiousness in bipolar patients with merely one hr per hebdomad of simple group brisk walk exercising for 8 months lengths ( Carta 2008 ) ; and for major depression patient, the positive result were observed after 150 proceedingss per hebdomad group walking for 8 hebdomad length plan. Greater entire clip exposure will give better important result for bipolar patient ( Ng, 2007 ) and the badness of affective/mood psychiatric job does non act upon the exercising result ( Jerome, 2008 ) . Oeland et Al ( 2010 ) have demonstrate that, increased in physical activity will enormously leads towards better organic structure physiology alterations among these patient. Their depression degree were found to hold farther lessening with high degree strength exercising comparison to low denseness exercising at equality d osage ( 4 times per hebdomad with 60 proceedingss continuance ) of exposure ( Doyne 1987 ) . The chief result measured for Drugs and Alcohol usage upset is the per centum twenty-four hours abstention ( PDA ) . Structured group exercising were found leads towards better PDA result as accessory therapy for drugs nuts and alcoholic patients ( Murphy 1986 ; Sinyor 1982 ; Brown 2010 ) at the lower limit of 8 hebdomads intercession ( Murphy, 1986 ) to 12 months intercession ( Sinyor 1982 ) . The effectual dosage reported in these surveies is 20-70 proceedingss exercise modus operandi for the least one time a hebdomad. Unstructured exercising has demonstrated lower result in Kendzor ( 2008 ) and Sinyor ( 1982 ) surveies, verified by their several intercession group and control group result. 1. Methods: All tests were randomized. The continuance of the tests ranged between 8 hebdomads ( Murphy 1986 ) and 24 months ( Ng 2007 ) . 2. Participants: All tests included people diagnosed with anxiousness upsets, affectional or temper upsets, and intoxicant or drugs use upset utilizing DSM-IV standards ( Carta 2008 ; Jerome 2008 ; Oeland 2010 ; Doyne 1987 ; Kenzor 2008 ; Murphy 1986 ; Sinyor 1982 ; Merom 2007 ; Ng 2007 ; and Brown 2010 ) . Merely one survey does non utilize in- or outpatients ( Murphy 2007 ) . Participants ranged in age from 18 to 80 old ages. 3. Setting: Three surveies were conducted in community Centre ( Kendzor 2008 ; Murphy 1986 ; Sinyor 1982 ) , one offered in the university ( Doyne 1987 ) , and the remainder is offered in and outpatient services. 4. Study Size: The smallest sample size is 16 participants ( Brown 2010 ) and the largest figure of participants in sample is 620 people ( Kendzor 2008 ) . 5. Interventions: All survey utilizing exercising as their chief activity used to mensurate the result. The experimental conditions identified in each of the included surveies differed in exercising continuance and strength. The exercising activity strength are from a simple walking to high strength supervised structured aerophilic exercising. Most selected surveies implement consistent continuance of exercising 20-60 proceedingss five times per twenty-four hours for the least 8 hebdomads. Merely good structured supervised intercession implements increase strength ( Sinyor 1982 ; Brown 2010 ) . All exercising programmes were in add-on to participant ‘s usual attention except intercession in Murphy, Pagano and Marlat ( 1986 ) survey. 6. Control intercessions: Standard attention: Participants continued with their usual intervention in Carta 2008, and add-on with Group Cognitive behaviour therapy and merely instruction benefit of exercising for Merom 2007, Oeland 2010, Doyne 1987, Kendzor 2008, Sinyor 1982 and Brown 2010. There are two control groups in Murphy, Pagano & A ; Mariat ( 1986 ) survey which one group in speculation intercession while the others were non in either exercising or speculation. These participants were university pupil non with any intervention for inordinate intoxicant consumption. Merely Ng 2007 does non implement control in their intercession. 7. Results: Depression Anxiety Stress Scale ( DASS-21 ) is a 21 point self study questionnaire designed to mensurate the badness of a scope of symptoms common to both Depression and Anxiety. Each point is scored from 0 ( did non use to me at all over the last hebdomad ) to 3 ( applied to me really much or most of the clip over the past hebdomad ) . Merom 2007 and Ng 2007 used this graduated table. World Health Organization Quality of Life BREF Version ( WHOQOL-BREF ) is scale to measure physical wellness, psychological, societal dealingss and the environment on a five-point graduated table where 1 = hapless QofL and 5 = good QofL. Carta 2008 and Oeland 2010 usage this graduated table. The Clinical Global Impression – Badness graduated table ( CGI-S ) is a 7-point graduated table that requires the clinician to rate the badness of the patient ‘s unwellness at the clip of appraisal, comparative to the clinician ‘s past experience with patients who have the same diagnosing. Considering entire clinical experience, a patient is assessed on badness of mental unwellness at the clip of evaluation 1=normal, non at all ailment ; 2, boundary line mentally badly ; 3, mildly ill ; 4, reasonably sick ; 5, markedly ill ; 6, badly sick ; or 7, highly ill. Ng 2007 used this graduated table. The Clinical Global Impression – Improvement graduated table ( CGI-I ) is a 7 point graduated table that requires theA clinicianA to measure how much the patient ‘s unwellness has improved or worsened comparative to a baseline province at the beginning of the intercession. Rated as: 1, really much improved ; 2, much improved ; 3, minimally improved ; 4, no alteration ; 5, minimally worse ; 6, much worse ; or 7, really much worse. Ng 2007 used this graduated table. The Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status ( RBANS ) is a screening battery designed to mensurate attending and treating velocity, expressive linguistic communication, visual-spatial and constructional abilities, and immediate and delayed memory.A Jerome 2008 used this measuring for to records schizophrenic patient activity. Symptoms Checklist-90 ( SCL-90 ) is used as a screening step of general psychiatric symptomatology. It includes dimensions mensurating somatization, obsessive-compulsive, depression, anxiousness, phobic anxiousness, ill will, interpersonal sensitiveness, paranoid ideation, and psychoticism. This was used by Jerome 2008 Center for Epidemiologic Studies depressive graduated table ( CES-D ) is a short self-report graduated table designed to mensurate depressive symptomatology in the general population. The points of the graduated table are symptoms associated with depression which have been used in antecedently validated longer scales.A It was found to hold really high internal consistence and equal test- retest repeatability. Cogency was established by forms of correlativities with other self-report steps, by correlativities with clinical evaluations of depression, and by relationships with other variables which support its concept cogency. This was used by Jerome 2008. Beck Depression InventoryA ( BDI ) is a 21-questionA multiple-choice self-report stock list, used for mensurating the badness ofA depression from a psychodynamicA position. In its questionnaire is designed for persons aged 13 and over and composed of points associating to symptoms of depression such as hopelessness and crossness, knowledges such as guilt or feelings of being punished, every bit good as physical symptoms such as weariness, A weight loss, and deficiency of involvement in sex. Used by Doyne 1987 and Kendzor 2008 Figure1: Methodological quality sum-up: reappraisal writers ‘ judgements about each methodological quality point for each included survey. Adequate Sequence Generation Allocation Concealment Blinding? Incomplete Outcome informations addressed Free of Selective Reporting Free of Others Bias Merom et Al 2007+++?+–Carta et Al 2008+++++–Ng et Al 2007+–+–Jerome et Al 2008+++–+–Oeland et Al 2010++++++Doyne et Al 1987+++++–Kendzor et Al 2008++––Murphy et Al 1986+++++–Sinyor et Al 1982+++–+–Brown et al 2010++?–+–Hazard of prejudice in included surveies Allotment: All survey reported as randomized. Blinding: None of the surveies were double-blinded. The reported consequences may overstate estimations of intervention consequence and None of the surveies reported any trial of blinding Incomplete result informations: Most of the surveies have withdrawal from the sample population as the highest reported were in Sinyor ( 1982 ) survey which about 60 % remains in the survey, which were due to self backdown from being participant after undergone first stage of intervention. Selective coverage: Most analyze describe the mean and standard divergence. Others beginning of prejudice: most of the survey have inclination of choice prejudice, measuring prejudice and mistake due to consequence of confusing particularly consequence of group therapy and regular undergone intervention. Discussion Ten surveies were included in this reappraisal. Overall, these surveies showed that exercising therapy can hold an impact on mental wellness results like mental province and general operation with no inauspicious effects. There are assorted surveies looking at the impact of exercising towards anxiousness in non-clinical samples utilizing DASS and SCL-90 inquiries tools, which were excluded for reappraisals apart from the ground of its non-clinical test survey design. Compare to usual intervention entirely and GCBT, prolonged and frequent exercising conducted in group for at least 8 hebdomads were significantly effectual in cut down anxiousness, depression and emphasis among patients diagnosed with generalised anxiousness upset, panic upset, and societal phobic disorder. Similar consequence was observed for bipolar upset and major depression in add-on to their usual intervention, irrespective of the psychiatric status badness and exercising strength ( Jerome 2008 ) . Clinical tests have shown high twenty-four hours abstention from drugs and intoxicant best occurs in good structured, high strength group exercising among alcoholic and drugs addict, in add-on to their usual intervention for the job. Kendzor 2008 survey has demonstrated there was no consequence of single low denseness physical activity towards cut downing the heavy imbibing wont. We could reason that, the minimal effectual dosage for exercising to mental position is 40-60 proceedingss session, repeated 3-5 times per hebdomad for uninterrupted 8 hebdomads continuance. This dose plants for low endurance brisk walking exercising with a proper warming up session. Increases in exercising strength will give better physical fittingness, and ideal weight direction. Type of exercising, its strength, and dosage is modified base on underlying fitness degree and age ( Jerome 2008 ; Jokela 2010 ; van Hauvelen 2006 ; Perrino 2009 ) . Others factors that could impact exercising effectivity is the exercising environment. Mackay & A ; Neill 2009 survey shows that there is important relationship between anxiousness alterations and green environment. Exercise strength works for depression ( Brown 2005 ; Jerome 2005 ) and substance usage upset ( Sinyor 1982 ; Brown 2010 ) but non for anxiousness ( Mackay & A ; Neill 2009 ) . It is found that smoking behaviour will detain exercising fittingness consequence ( Tart 2010 ) . AUTHOR ‘S Decision Deduction of pattern Peoples with mental unwellness The consequences of this reappraisal indicate that there are assorted benefits of exercising to persons with anxiousness upset, temper and affectional upset, and substance usage upset, which can better constituents of mental wellness by take parting in structured group exercising. Limited figure of surveies on proper strength and dosage of exercising towards the betterment of mental wellness for the different population group and underlying psychiatric jobs has cause troubles for medical practician to come out with clear counsel to the patient. Physician, physical therapist, professional physical trainers, and wellness pedagogue should be consulted for better support and advice towards implementing exercising as intervention intercession. It is clear from this survey that, exercising plants as accessory therapy for identified psychological jobs and high strength exercising work for substance maltreater and depression patient. The best consequence of exercising is that it conducted in group and being supervised. Patient with anxiousness does responds to high strength exercising but the consequence is non much different comparison to low strength exercising. Current guidelines for lifestyle activity and exercising appear do non truly work for the justified mental upsets. Therefore, roll uping 40-60 proceedingss of proper physical activity on most or all yearss of the hebdomad is a good guideline. This should be continued for lower limit of 8 hebdomads for a better mental position result. Cessation of smoke will further guarantee better wellness benefit. For physician, wellness pedagogue, physical therapist and professional physical trainers Regular exercising is known for its physical, mental, and societal benefits. It is a multidimensional attack that requires physician, wellness pedagogue, physical therapist and professional physical trainers to guarantee patients to go and remaining active for its physical and psychological benefit. Proper information guidelines to patients are indispensable in the long tally. Health practicians should besides be equipped with this latest information and every bit good stress on the safety of intercession to avoid negative consequence of exercising particularly muscle hurt if non decently done. Side consequence of medicine and structural barrier for intercession ( socio economic position, substructure ) every bit good as underlying medical status should besides be considered before recommend this intercession to the patients. In others word, exercising intercession is personalized to accommodate single state of affairs. For policy Structural barrier may restrict patient engagement into exercising intercession in mental upset intervention. It is shown from the surveies that patients with mental wellness have better opportunity to better their morbidity when adhere into exercising intercession as accessory intervention for their implicit in psychological jobs. Proper guidelines for wellness practicians and patients are required for better communicating to present the information for both. Multidisciplinary attack should be emphasized in this patterns which could profound positive impact on patients wellness and well-being. More clip is required to present and explicate this message to patient as the plan is personalized to suit single implicit in societal and physical well-being. Policymakers should see the execution of this multidisciplinary programmes approach within their several intervention installations. They should besides see to supply better exercising installations in the community therefore every bit good promotes green environment and the constitution of good structured community exercising group plan for a long term benefit. There is opportunities that uninterrupted exercising plan could be used as bar of acquired mental wellness jobs due to life-style alterations. More grounds on this is required and with such grounds support, cost benefit or cost effectual analysis of preventative exercising intercession in mental wellness could be established. In long-standing, this could be helpful in cut downing pharmaceutical cost for mental wellness in a state. Deduction for research General There are assorted established measuring used in describing mental wellness result therefore cause troubles to compare the survey consequences. It is recommended that in research pattern for mental wellness result, the measuring should be standardized. Specific It is of import in future for us to hold a clear define continuance, frequence and strength of exercising plan for each mental wellness upset ; sing the implicit in medical and physiological well-being of single. Survey on the alterations of fittingness degree due to the intercession is increasingly in patterns, and in any future research it should be reported in the record. Mental wellness is a complex subject where there is no clear cut point of disease and ever presented with a comorbid status of either other mental upset or chronic diseases. This should every bit good to be considered in future research particularly in intercession survey. It is besides a challenge in the research of this country to guarantee the determination is free from cofounding consequence of biological and societal diverseness in the complex planetary society. 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